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Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Artificial Vegetative Reproduction:






  • In artificial vegetative propagation, a portion is separated from the body of the plant and then it is grown independently.
  • This is useful commercially because the new individuals produced maintain the desirable characters of the parents and the offsprings are called as true type.
  • A population of these genetically identical plants obtained from an individual is called a clone.
  • Following techniques have been developed for the artificial vegetative propagation of economic plants:
    • Cuttings: This is the most common method of vegetative propagation practiced by gardeners and nurserymen all over the world. A portion of root, stem or leaf is taken and rooted in the soil to form a new plant. Stem cuttings are most suitable for vegetative propagation as they readily establish themselves into new plants by forming adventitious roots. Factors such as the optimal length and diameter of the cuttings, age of the parent plant and the season have to be taken into consideration for each species. Plants like sugarcane, roses, grapes, cocoa, tapioca, carnation, Bougainvillea, Coleus etc. are propagated by stem cuttings.
    1. Stem cuttings of some plants do not produce roots readily and have to be treated with hormones like IAA, IBA and NAA.
    2. Root cuttings of lemon, tamarind, ipecac, etc. when put into moist soil, sprout forming new roots and shoots.
    • Layering: In this method, roots are induced on the stem while it is still attached to the parent plant. There are two common types of layering:
    1. Mound layering: In this technique, the lower branch of the plant is bent down close to the ground and covered with moist soil in such a way that its growing tip remains above the soil surface. This bent branch is now called a layer. After a few days the covered portion of stem usually produces adventitious roots. The rooted branch is then cut and is grown as an independent plant. This method is commonly employed for propagating strawberry, jasmine, grape vine, raspberry, gooseberry, apple, etc.
    2. Air layering: In this method, the stem is girdled or slit at an upward angle, and covered with moist moss or cotton and wrapped with a polythene sheet to prevent drying. In drier climate, an earthern pot with a hole at the bottom is hanged over the sheet in a convenient position and the two are connected by a soft cotton cord. The pot is filled with water, and water trickles down the cord and keep the sheet moist. After the injured part produces roots, the branch is cut and planted separately to propagate a new individual. This technique is usually employed in plants with thick branches which can not be bent to ground e.g.,pomegranate, orange, guava, litchi, etc.




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