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Morphology Angiosperm- Botany

Morphology of Angiosperm





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Flowering plants are multi-cellular organisms which grow by cell division. Their morphological features and traits are genetically determined. “Morphology is one of the most interesting branches of Biology, and may almost be said to be its very soul”- Charles Darwin. Morphology plays a key role in the classification of plants. This unit includes the important morphological features, organization of body parts of the flowering plants, their internal structure and tissue system. In this unit you will also learn how to describe a flowering plant, using examples from selected families, and how different organs of plants are modified to serve specific needs, including defence from their enemies. Some idea of the economic importance of selected plant families can also be known.


Angiosperms (Gk. Angeion = a case ; sperma = seed) are characterised by the enclosure of the   ovules within an ovary or plants with encased seeds or covered seeded plants. Morphology (Gk.  Morphos: form; logos: study) deals with the study of forms and external features of plant parts. Knowledge of morphology is essential for the identification of plants and their classification. Morphological characters indicate the specific habitats of living as well as the fossil plants and helps to correlate their distribution in space and time.  Angiosperms evolved about 130 million years back (Cretaceous period of Mesozoic era). They constitute the dominant flora of now-a-days, as they consist of about 50% of total plants i.e., 3,00,000 species. They are characterized by presence of flower, fruit, seeds, vessels and sieve tubes


  • Panchanan Maheshwari was a great plant embryologist of India. He wrote the famous book - An Introduction to the Embryology of angiosperms.
  • Campbell and Wilson (1962) observed that self-pollination leads to agamospermy.
  • Gustafson (1939) was the first to induce parthenocarpy.
  • Father of palynology is regarded to Erdtman.
  • Nitsch (1952) found the role of pollination and developing seeds in fruit formation.
  • Arceuthobium, the smallest angiospermic parasite, has monosporangiate anther.
  • Arceuthobium, the smallest angiospermic parasite, has monosporangiate anther.
  • Perisperm - like tissue in chalazal region is chalazosperm.
  • Filiform apparatus is a mass of finger-like projections of the wall into the cytoplasm; and is rich in polysaccharides. It is believed to develop due to some chemotactic stimulus.
  • Bees observe things in ultraviolet part of spectrum. Red appears black to them. Therefore, bees seldom visit red flowers.
  • Erythrina is pollinated by crows as well as squirrels.
  • Study of fruits is called pomology.
  • National fruit of India is Mangifera indica.
  • Inferior capsule is called diplotegia, e.g., Eucalyptu,. Iris.
  • Inferior ovary is called bacca.
  • Bitter taste of some cucurbits is due to triterpenes.
  • Betelnut (Areca catechu) is a fibrous berry.
  • In guava, the whole fruit is edible but seeds are not digestible.
  • Study of seeds is called spermology.
  • Part of seed excluding seed coat is called Kernel.
  • Outgrowth along hilum of seed is called strophiole.
  • T.P.C. (Triphenyl chloride) in 0.1% solution is used for testing viability of seeds.
  • Epiblast is considered to be rudimentary second cotyledon in monocots.
  • In grains, part of embryo axis between origin of scutellum and base of coleoptile is called mesocotyl.




Parts of Angiospermic Plants


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