(XE: SECTION E)
Continuum, macroscopic approach, thermodynamic system (closed and open or control volume); thermodynamic properties and equilibrium; state of a system, state diagram, path and process; different modes of work; Zeroth law of thermodynamics; concept of temperature; heat.
First Law of Thermodynamics:
Energy, enthalpy, specific heats, first law applied to systems and control volumes, steady and unsteady flow analysis.
Second Law of Thermodynamics:
Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements, reversible and irreversible processes, Carnot theorems, thermodynamic temperature scale, Clausius inequality and concept of entropy, principle of increase of entropy; availability and irreversibility.
Properties of Pure Substances:
Thermodynamic properties of pure substances in solid, liquid and vapor phases, P-V-T behaviour of simple compressible substances, phase rule, thermodynamic property tables and charts, ideal and real gases, equations of state, compressibility chart.
T-ds relations, Maxwell equations, Joule-Thomson coefficient, coefficient of volume expansion, adiabatic and isothermal compressibilities, Clapeyron equation.
Carnot vapor power cycle, Ideal Rankine cycle, Rankine Reheat cycle, Air standard Otto cycle, Air standard Diesel cycle, Air-standard Brayton cycle, Vapor-compression refrigeration cycle.
Ideal Gas Mixtures:
Dalton's and Amagat's laws, calculations of properties, air-water vapor mixtures and simple thermodynamic processes involving them.
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