NCERT solutions for class 12 Chemistry

About NCERT Solutions for class 12 Chemsitry

Chemistry, in general, is the most important subject of class 12th science class. The NCERT solutions for class 12th chemistry is prepared by experts to assists students in their learning. The team at Entrancei comprises of experts having years of experience. This NCERT solutions for class 12th chemistry can assist your overall progress in the upcoming board examination. The team at Entrancei has maintained the top class standard over the years.

Since our team is already acquainted with the type of question papers in the final examination. The NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry is a precious text for students. The versatility of our study material is not only restrained to board exams. Students can also refer this study material for various other competitive exams as well.

Why NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry are important?

Chemistry consist of various typical theories as well numerical part. Many a time’s students get stuck in problems and complex theories. This hinders the smooth learning curve of students. In order to prevent any type of time wastage, the team has come up with NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry study material.

Since chemistry has a wide syllabus to cover, so it becomes a bit difficult to comprehend at the time of revision. Students can easily revise the study material right before their examinations. The NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry has been divided into chapter wise section.

Our team has made extensive efforts to research the most possible questions from year question papers. Students can find defiantly find various important marked questions in the study material. Since syllabus of class 12th chemistry is very wide & comprises of various unnecessary things. The team at Entrancei has completely removed unnecessary things and made learning easy.

Step-by-step guidance is provided to critical numerical. Students can also find various short tricks to solve critical concepts and solutions. The experts in our team drafting NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry are well versed in the topics. Students can find various intrinsic details in the NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry prepared by our team. Chemistry is the subject with wide entices, we have inculcated short solving techniques in our syllabus.

How to Study NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry effectively?

Whether it’s your board examinations or national level competitive examination, NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry is a one-stop solution for all your needs. Students can also find various dedicated sections in study material for information on critical problems.The very ideology we follow at Entrancei is to help students with hassle-free learning. This NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry can help students clear all their conceptual doubts.

Why Entrancei is best for NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry?

Students looking for expert guidance can study through NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry provided by Entrancei. We have been helping needy students by providing the most coveted study material for no dime. Students can access our NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry for completely free. All they need to do is to sign up with us. Avail the precious study material created by experts of their field right at your home at no cost.

Approach to use NCERT solution for class 12 chemistry for physical chemistry

Physical chemistry required conceptual clarity over the subject. One must know how to apply the concept in numerical. To become expert in numerical one must start with solid state chapter this is the chapter which didn’t required help for any other chapter and interesting too.In NCERT this chapter is explained with awesome figures which will help you to understand the structure of solid and what Bravis wants to explain. Try to solve the question of text book and after that take the help of NCERT solution for class 12 chemistry.

Don’t jump to solutions directly. Liquid solution required revision of stoichiometry chapter of class 11. Befor liquid solutions chapter you must know the term molarity, normality and other concentration term. Read the NCERT text book for the theory understand the concept of Raoult law and colligative properties solve the question given in the text book of NCERT. Take reference of NCERT solution for class 12 chemistry.

Electrochemistry and chemical kinetics topics are very important and carries high weightage in class 12 board exam. All questions given in NCERT text book must be solved completely. You can take help of entrancei chemistry formula page to learn all formula required for these chapter.

Approach to use NCERT solution for class 12 chemistry for organic chemistry

At the beginning of Organic chemistry for class 12 one must revise few topics of class 11 organic chemistry such as.

  1. Chemical bonding
  2. General organic chemistry
  3. Hydrocarbon

It is very important to have clarity in the above topics before starting class 12 alkyl halide chapter. After revision start with alkyl halide. Read the theory of SN1 and SN2 reaction mechanism try to find the mechanism of each reaction and how the reaction proceed and for mechanism detail you can take reference of Entrancei organic section. Read the chapter make your own notes and write all reaction and solve the text book questions at last take the help of NCERT solution for class 12 chemistry.

Approach to use NCERT solution for class 12 chemistry for Inorganic chemistry

Inorganic chemistry is the part of chemistry which is mostly neglected because of its theoretical part but one must understand that it consists of 30 percent weightage of the entire chemistry subjects. Students need to have different approach to score good marks in inorganic chemistry notes play extremely good work in inorganic chemistry. From day one start make notes for this subject from NCERT text book. Make sure you have written all important points in this section. While making notes take help of Entrancei inorganic theory which consist of all the information which you required and always solve the questions given in NCERT text book and take the reference of NCERT solution for class 12 chemistry.

Chapter-1 Solid state

Classification of solids; crystalline state, seven crystal systems (only cell parameters: a, b, c, alpha, beta and gamma); packing fcc, bcc, hcp; nearest neighbors, simple ionic compounds, point defects.Crystalline solids.Crystalline solids have long range order. The long-range order means the atoms or ions or molecules are arranged in a regular fashion and this symmetrical arrangement extends throughout the crystal length. b) Amorphous solids: An amorphous solid differs from a crystalline substance in being without any shape of its own and has a completely random particle arrangements, i.e. no regular arrangement. Example-Glass,Plastic.

Chapter 2: Solutions

Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more than two components. By homogenous mixture we mean that its composition and properties are uniform throughout the mixture. Generally, the component that is present in the largest quantity is known as solvent. Solvent determines the physical state in which solution exists. One or more components present in the solution other than solvent are called solutes. In this Unit we shall consider only binary solutions (i.e., consisting of only two components).

Chapter 3: Electrochemistry

The connection between chemistry and electricity is a very old one, going back to Allesandro volta’s discovery in 1793, that electricity could be produced by placing two dissimilar metals on opposite sides of a moistened paper. Oxidation -Reduction reactions involve a transfer of electrons. Because a flow of electrons constitutes a electric current, we can at least in principle use any redox reaction to produce a electric current. Conversely we can use an electric current to carry out redox reactions that do not proceed spontaneously. Electrochemical cells are the devices in which interconversion of electrical energy and chemical energy takes place. Electro-chemical cells are of two basic types.

  1. Galvanic cells
  2. Electrolytic cells

Chapter 4: Chemical Kinetics

Chemical Kinetics is the branch of science that deals with rate of reaction, factors affecting the rate of reaction and reaction mechanism.Different reactions occur at different rate. In fact a chemical reaction involves redistribution of bonds –– breaking of bond(s) in the reactant molecule(s) and making of bonds in the product molecule(s). The rate of a chemical reaction actually depends upon the strength of the bond(s) and number of bonds to be broken during the reaction. It takes longer time for the reactant molecules to acquire higher amount of energy which they do by collision. Hence reactions involving breaking of strong bond at relatively slower rate while those involving breaking of weak bond at relatively faster rate.On the basis of rate, reactions are classified as.

  1. Instantaneous or extremely fast reactions i.e. reactions with half-life of the order of fraction of second.
  2. Extremely slow reactions i.e. reactions with half-life of the order of years.
  3. Reactions of moderate or measurable rate.

Chapter 5: Surface Chemistry

Surface chemistry is the branch of chemistry, which deals with the study of phenomena occurring at the surface separating the two bulk phases. These two bulk phases can be pure compounds or solutions.

ADSORPTION-The phenomenon of attracting and retaining the molecules of the substance on the surface of a liquid or a solid resulting into a higher concentration of molecules on the surface is called adsorption. The substance thus adsorbed on the surface is called the adsorbate and the substance on which it is adsorbed is called adsorbent. The reverse process, i.e. removal of the adsorbed substance from the surface is called desorption (which can be brought about by heating or reducing the pressure). The adsorption of gases on the surface of metals is called occlusion.

Chapter 6: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

Commercially important ores of iron, copper, lead, magnesium, aluminium, tin and silver. Carbon reduction process (iron and tin), Self reduction process (copper and lead), Electrolytic reduction process (magnesium and aluminium), Cyanide process (silver and gold).The materials available for making tools and weapons, houses and skyscrapers, computers and lasers have had a profound effect on the development of human civilization. The earth’s crust is the main source of metals. The occurrence of metal in native or in combined state in the earth’s crust along with a number of rocky and other impurities depends upon the chemical nature of metals. Metals having less electropositive character have less affinity for oxygen, moisture and occur in free or metallic or native state. Minerals which are naturally occurring chemical substances in the earth’s crust obtainable by mining. Out of many minerals in which a metal may be found, only a few are viable to be used as sources of that metal. Such minerals are known as ores.

Chapter 7: The p-Block Elements

Group 13 to 18 elements (except helium), in which the last electron enters the p-orbitals, constitute the p-block. In this chapter will be study systematic group wise details of p-block elements.Most common oxidation states are +3 and +1. Stability of +1 oxidation state increases on going down the group from aluminium to Tl. Thus, in aqueous solution Tl+ is more stable.Metallic character increases down the group due to decreasing I.E. and easy loss of electrons. Boron having small size cannot easily lose its electron and hence is an exception to metallic character.

Chapter 8: The d & f Block Elements

Transition elements (only the first row, 3d series): Definition, Werner’s approach to coordination compounds, general characteristic properties [viz., variable oxidation states, colour (excluding the details of electronic transition) calculation of spin-only magnetic moment, formation of complexes (stereochemistry excluded), nomenclature of simple coordination compounds, valence bond approach to define geometries of coordination compounds of linear, tetrahedral, octahedral and square planar geometries.Three series of elements are formed by filling the 3d, 4d and 5d-subshells of electrons.

Together these comprise the d-block elements. They are often called ‘transition elements’ because their position in the periodic table is between the s-block and p-block elements.These elements either in their atomic state or in any of their common oxidation state have partly filled (n-1) d-orbitals of(n-1)th main shell. In these elements the differentiating electron enters (n-1)d orbitals of (n-1)th main shell and as such these are called d-block elements. Their properties are transitional between the highly reactive metallic elements of the s-block, which typically forms ionic compounds and the elements of the p-block, which are largely covalent. In the s and p-blocks, electrons are added to the outer shell of the atom. In the d-block, electrons are added to the penultimate shell, expanding it from 8 to 18 electrons. Typically the transition elements have an incompletely filled d-level. The transition elements make up three complete rows of ten elements and an incomplete fourth row.

Chapter 9: Coordination Compounds

When solutions of two or more stable compounds are mixed in stoichiometric (simple molecular) proportions new crystalline compounds called molecular or addition compounds are formed. These are of two types:

  1. Double salts
  2. Co-ordination or Complex compounds
  1. Double salts : Addition compounds, stable in solid state. Dissociate into ions in aqueous solution as such give test for each constituent ion.
  2. Terminology of co-ordination compounds.
  1. Central metal atom or ion: A complex ion contains a metal atom or ion known as the central metal atom or ion. it is sometimes also called a nuclear atom.
  2. Complex ion: It is an electrically charged radical which is formed by the combination of a simple cation with one or more neutral molecules or simple anions or in some cases positive groups also.
  3. Ligands: Neutral molecules or ions that attach to central metal ion are called ligands. The donor atom associated with the ligands supplies lone pair of electrons to the central metal atom (forming dative bond) may be one or two more. Monodentate (one donor atom), bidentate (two donor atom), tridenatate (three donor atom) etc.

Chapter 10: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Alkyl halides are halogen substituted alkanes. A monohaloalkane is written as RX, where X is any halogen atom (F, Cl, Br and I). The general formula of monohaloalkanes is CnH2n + 1X while that of a dihaloalkane is CnH2nX2.Alkyl halides of a particular kind, in which halogen atom is attached to a saturated carbon, which in turn is linked to unsaturated carbon, are called allyl halides. And when halogen atom is attached to an unsaturated (sp2) carbon, they are called vinyl halides. Alkyl halides are classified as primary (1°), secondary (2°) or tertiary (3°), depending upon the type of carbon to which X is bonded. When X is bonded to a carbon, which is bonded to one more carbon is called 1° halide and their general representation is RCH2X. When X is linked to a carbon, which is bonded to two carbons is called 2° halides and is denoted by R2CHX. When X is bonded to a carbon, which is attached to 3 carbons is called 3° halides and is designated as R3CX. CH3X is unique (not classified as 1°, 2° or 3°) as carbon is bonded to only hydrogens and is simply called methyl halide. Dihaloalkanes with both halogens on same carbon are called gemdihalides and with halogen on adjacent carbons are called vicinal dihalides.

Chapter 11: Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers

Alcohol (esterification, dehydration and oxidation) Reaction of alcohols with sodium, phosphorus halides, ZnCl2/Conc. HCl. Phenol, Acidity of phenols, halogenation nitration, sulfonation and Riemer – Tiemann reaction .All alcohol contains the hydroxyl (-OH) group, which, as the functional group, determines the properties characteristic of this family. Variations in structure of the R group may affect the rate at which the alcohol undergoes certain reactions, and even, in a few cases, may affect the kind of reaction.When the hydroxyl group is attached directly to an aromatic ring they are phenols, and differ so markedly from the alcohols that we shall consider them separately.

Chapter 12: Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acids

Aldehydes and Ketones (oxidation, reduction, oxime and hydrazone formation, Aldol condensation, Perkin reaction, Cannizzaro reaction, haloform and original reaction only. Aldehydes and ketones both possess a carbonyl group and therefore are called carbonyl compounds. Formaldehyde is the simplest aldehyde, bonded to two hydrogens. In all other aldehydes, the carbonyl group is bonded to a hydrogen and to an alkyl (or an aryl) group. The carbonyl group of a ketone is bonded to two alkyl (or aryl) groups.

Chapter 13: Amines

Basicity of aniline and aliphatic amine, preparation from nitro compounds, reaction with nitrous acid, formation and reactions or diazonium salts, and its coupling with phenols, carbylamine reaction. Amines are organic compounds of ammonia in which one or more than one hydrogen atoms are replaced by other atoms or group of atoms. They are classified as primary (RNH2 or 1°), secondary (R2NH or 2°) or tertiary (R3N or 3°) depending upon one, two or all the three hydrogen atoms of ammonia are replaced by alkyl groups (R). Amines are commonly named as alkyl amines. The alkyl groups attached to N atom are named in the alphabetical order followed by amine. According to IUPAC system of nomenclature they are named as Alkanamine. The longest carbon atom chain attached to Natom is chosen as the parent compound and in the name of parent hydrocarbon, the last letter ‘e’ is replaced by the suffix amine. The substituents are named as prefixes in the alphabetical order.

Chapter 14: Biomolecules

Carbohydrates: Classification – mono, di and polysaccharides (Glucose, Sucrose and Starch only); hydrolysis of sucrose. Amino acids and Peptides: General structure and physical properties. Properties and uses of some important polymers (natural rubber, cellulose, nylon, teflon, PVC),The group of compounds known as carbohydrates received their general name because of early observations that they often have the formula Cx(H2O)y - that is, they appear to be hydrates of carbon.Limitations: The above definition could not survive long due to the following reasons.

  1. A number of compounds such as rhamnose, (C6H12O5) and deoxyribose (C5H10O4) are known which are carbohydrates by their chemical behaviour but cannot be represented as hydrates of carbon.
  2. There are other substances like formaldehyde (HCHO, CH2O) and acetic acid [CH3COOH, C2 (H2O)2] which do not behave like carbohydrates but can be represented by the general formula, Cx(H2O)y.
  3. Carbohydrates are defined as polyhydroxy aldehydes or polyhydroxy ketones or substances which give these on hydrolysis and contain at least one chiral carbon atom. It may be noted here that aldehydic and ketonic groups in carbohydrates are not present as such but usually exist in combination with one of the hydroxyl group of the molecule in the form of hemiacetals and hemiketals respectively.

Chapter 15: Polymers

Sit quietly and think about your activities today from the morning. You wake up in the morning, You want to brush your teeth. You fetch your toothpaste. The tube is made up of a polymer. Your brush is made up of a polymer. When you want to rinse your mouth, you open your plastic(polymer) tap. The pipe lines used to bring water to your tap is made of PVC(polymer). Skip it. You start preparing your break fast. You take a non-stick tawa. Non-stick? What does that mean? What is it made of? It is poly tetrafluoro ethylene abbreviated as teflon, a polymer. See, how polymers play an important role in our daily life from dawn to dusk. The molded chair in which you are sitting is a polymer. The pen with which I'm writing this is a polymer. Want to know more about polymers? Read further.

Polymers can be called as macromolecules. Macromolecules can be considered as an association of small molecules to give a big molecule. Macromolecules can be man-made, too. The first syntheses were aimed at making substitutes for the natural macromolecules, rubber and silk; but a vast technology has grown up that now produces hundreds of substances that have no natural counterparts. Synthetic macromolecular compounds include: elastomers, which have the particular kind of elasticity characteristic of rubber; fibers, long, thin and threadlike, with the great strength along the fiber that characterizes cotton, wool, and silk; and plastics, which can be extruded as sheets or pipes, painted on surfaces, or molded to form countless objects. We wear these manmade materials, eat and drink from them, sleep between them, sit and stand on them; turn knobs, pull switches, and grasp handles made of them; with their help we hear sounds and see sights remote from us in time and space; we live in houses and move about in vehicles that are increasingly made of them.

FAQ For class 12 Chemistry

Q-1. How to score good marks in CBSE Board class 12 chemistry with the help of the NCERT textbook?

Ans- To score good marks in class 12 chemistry you must be strong in all three parts of chemistry physical, inorganic, and organic chemistry. You need a different approach in all three parts of chemistry for example to do well in physical chemistry focus on theory and solve numerical given in the NCERT textbook. Inorganic chemistry is highly dependent on your notes so prepare a good note form the NCERT textbook and note down all bullet points in it. Understand all reaction mechanisms given in the NCERT textbook.

Q-2. What is the right approach to reading the NCERT class 12 chemistry Textbook for the Board exam?

Ans- For board exam, the NCRT textbook is highly recommended and must be read line by line. The best approach to score good marks in class 12 chemistry is to make good notes from chapter-1 to chapter-16. Solve all questions given in the NCERT exercise.

Q-3. What are the right strategies to deal with inorganic chemistry for the board exam?

Ans- Inorganic chemistry must be done through the NCERT textbook. It is sufficient and consists of all the important points which are required to score good marks in class 12 chemistry.

Q-4. Is NCERT class 12 chemistry text is enough for the entrance exam?

Ans- Yes now a day all most all entrance exam is conducted by NTA that includes JEE and NEET and the recommended book of NTA is NCERT. Check out the previous year's paper you can easily do an analysis that almost 75 % of questions are asked directly from the NCERT textbook.

Q-5. What are the most important chapters of class 12 chemistry for the board exam?

Ans- The most important chapters of class 12 chemistry are electrochemistry, liquid solution, coordination compounds, and carbonyl compounds.

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